Natalie Tijerina Sandra Albarracin
Classification: Gram + Dimorphic fungus- can Growth: reproduces by exist in yeast and fungal budding form (virulence factor) pH: Needs a slightly Genus: Candida alkaline environment to Species: albicans thrive , a pH about 7.4 Shape: spores and Temperature: 37°C, hyphae(branching tubes warm and damp that make up the body of environments a multicellular fungus) Oxygen: Facultative Size: 10-12 µm in anaerobes diameter
Complete medical evaluation and history, with physical exam that focuses on the area of the body with symptoms Diagnosis is made based on signs and symptoms, and clusters of budding yeast Generally, a doctor takes a sample of the vaginal discharge or swabs an area of oral or skin lesions, urine, feces, and nail clippings Fungal blood and stool cultures for detection of Candida should be taken for patients suspected of having deep organ candidiasis Tissue biopsy may be needed for invasive systemic disease.
C. Albicans is normally present on the skin and in mucous membranes such as the vagina, mouth, rectum, and digestive tract The fungus also can travel through the blood stream in immunocompromised individuals Candida can enter newborn infants during or shortly after birth This organism is OPPORTUNISTIC- for example, antibiotics kill the good bacteria leaving Candida free to grow
The infections caused by al species of Candida are cal ed Candidiasis-most commonly Candida albicans Candida is known to impair immune functioning by directly and negatively impacting the helper- suppresser ratio of T lymphocytes Organism causes disease by invading human tissue by means of pseudohyphae (long filaments) which can penetrate intracel ular cracks The overgrowth of Candida is complex and a difficult condition to overcome once it enters the body. It is one of the most highly adaptive organisms, and has the ability to mutate and develop stronger forms of itself
T-cel efficiency can be influenced to a useful extent by nutrition. It is largely the suppressors which are involved in fighting Candida It’s adaptability al ows it to produce disguising anitgens which deter the immune system from recognizing it as foreign and harmful. In this way the immune system may eventual y become non- responsive to the presence of Candida albicans. Impaired production and function of the T-cell lymphocytes cannot effectively regulate B-cell immunoglobulin production. As a result the body cannot discriminate between harmless and potential y toxic agents.
Produces toxins -Gliotoxin: inactivates important enzymes, and is cytotoxic-Acetaldehyde: normal by-product of metabolism, however excess production of this by Candida can cause impaired neuro-transmission in the brain Candida Albicans and its toxins can infiltrate and effect any organ or system in the body and can be responsible for a large variety of physical and mental health conditions that we see so commonly in people today Toxic waste can also be absorbed into the blood stream
Candidiasis is an extremely common infection. Thrush occurs in approximately 2–5 percent of healthy newborns and occurs in a slightly higher percentage of infants during their first year of life. Over 1 million adult women and adolescent girls in the United States develop vaginal yeast infections each year. It is not life-threatening, but the condition can be uncomfortable and frustrating.
A common cause of Candida albicans fungus is the overuse of antibiotics or oral contraceptives Steroid hormone medication, ex. Cortisone, or corticosteroids often prescribed for skin conditions such as rashes, eczema Suppressed immune systems, ex. Patients with diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and that receive radiation or chemotherapy High sugar and starch diet (yeasts live on sugar, and starches are converted into sugar very quickly during our digestion process)
Candida species can infect tissues in essentially every body system, producing a wide range of clinical manifestations is called thrush when it grows in the mouth, especially in infants shows up on skin as a red, inflamed, and sometimes scaly rash, ex: diaper rash causes vaginitis, commonly known as a yeast infection causes candidal onchomycosis in the nails can affect the esophagus and the digestive tract Candidal infection of the penis may result from sexual intercourse with an infected partner
In immunocompromised patients, when body resistance is low as in leukemia or HIV/AIDS, Candida albicans can enter the bloodstream and causes systemic infection The more debilitated the host the more invasive the disease Candida albicans is one of several mycoses (fungal disease) that account for most deaths associated with AIDS So common in HIV+ individuals that their mycoses are part of what defines end-stage AIDS
Yeast infection that develops in the mouth White plaques in mouth, tongue, gums, palate, and/or pharynx Preventable by practicing good oral hygiene To prevent from spreading to infants: treat vaginal yeast infections during last 3 months of pregnancy, wash bottles and pacifiers, and do not reuse bottles more than an hour after a baby has drank from it
Diaper rash is an example of cutaneous candidiasis Scaly, raised red rash Occurs from moisture, heat, friction of the skin, infrequently changed soiled diapers Preventable by changing diapers more often, don’t overtighten diapers (prevents airflow creating moist environment), Treat by keeping skin as clean and dry as possible; antifungal cream, mild hydrocortisone cream
Also categorized under cutaneous candidiasis Characterized by red swelling around the nails, destruction of nail tissue, and loss of nail Occurs more often in toenails than fingernails because toenails are often confined to warm and moist environments Difficult to treat; OTC creams and ointments available, but not very effective; Oral antifungal medications work best, ex: Lamisil
Characterized by cloudy vision, and lesions within the eye Caused through the spread of Candida in the blood stream, indwelling catheters, IV drug abuse, ocular trauma/surgery Prevention: avoid IV drug abuse Treatment: Amphotericin B
Oxygen-carrying red blood cells are rigid and stiff when compared to patients without candida Fatigue Carbohydrate craving Topical infections of fingernails, vaginal infections, underarm infections White coated tongue Increased allergic symptoms Reduced thyroid function Lowered immune system and increased susceptibility to viral infections T-cell helper/suppressor ratios radically lowered Up to 3/4 of the lymphocytes become paralyzed Candida seems to upset the function of organs as opposed to damaging them ETC, ETC, ETC!!!!
Antifungal medications — these include oral rinses and tablets, vaginal tablets and suppositories, and creams. For vaginal yeast infections, medications that are available over the counter include creams and suppositories such as Monistat, Vagistat, and Gyne-Lotrimin. Your doctor may prescribe a pil , Diflucan Creams combined with low-strength corticosteroids — reduce inflammation and itching. The “Candida diet”- detox, probiotics, improve what you eat Most treatments last from 2 – 3 days to 2 weeks. Be sure to take all medicine exactly as prescribed. If you do not, the same infection could come back, or you could become infected with a new strain of candida. For severe candidiasis that could be life threatening to someone with a comprised immune system, your doctor may prescribe an IV medication, amphotericin B.
Recently researchers used recombinant DNA to create a live vaccine, and have conjugated fungal antigens with diphtheria toxoid to create a vaccine against Candida
Good personal hygiene Keeping skin clean, dry, and free from abrasions or cuts Avoid high sugar, starch, and carbohydrates in your diet Taking sufficient amounts of probiotics, to repopulate normal flora
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