Individual Competencies for Managing Diversity in the Workplace Part 3
Learning Objectives • What are the developmental stages of “Cultural Competency”? • What are the stages of Conflict Escalation & what are the managerial options for addressing conflict? • How is Cultural Competency applied in management and supervision? • How does Cultural Competency address stereotyping?
Cultural Competence is defined from a Systems Perspective • It is responsive to diversity at al levels of an organization and stakeholder groups: i.e., policy, governance, administrative, workforce, suppliers, and consumer/client. • Cultural competence is developmental, community focused.• Competency to Manage Culture and Diversity includes values, beliefs, and lifestyle behaviors that influence workplace behaviors, workplace policies, professional and systems competencies. • Competence to Manage Culture and Diversity applies skil s that lead others to function effectively and provide quality services to diverse populations.
Escalation of Differences into Conflict Conflict / War Hostility Anger Open Disagreement Frustration Heightened Tension Irritation Annoyance Awareness of Differences (Parker, p. 80)
CONFLI LI CT MAN A AG NAG EMENT ST ST YLES W hen parties are faced w ith a conflict, they may respond by: PASSIVE APPROACH Avoidance (Inaction and Withdrawal) Accommodation (Yielding) ACTIVE APPROACH Competition (Win-Lose) Col aboration (Problem-Solve)
Comparing Col aborative and Competitive Strategies Factor Collaborative Competitive Goal Mutual Gain Self Benefit Resource View Expandable Fixed-Pie Relationship Valued Unimportant View of Other Partner Adversary Communication Open Controlled Trust High Limited Power Shared Coveted
IIn n te te rr-C -C u u lltu tu rra a ll C C o o m m p p e e te te n n c c e e iis s a a D D e e v v e e llo o p p m m e e n n ta ta ll P P rro o c c e e s s s s .. (Be (B n en n n et et tt & & Be B n en n n et et tt iin n Al Allla a rd rd p p..10) 10) Action 6) Integration, Proficiency Understanding 5) Adaptation, Competency4) Awareness Acceptance, Pre–competence 3) Minimization2) Defensiveness1) Denial & Destructiveness Inter-Cultural Competence Continuum
Diversity Competency Model COM Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 PE Awareness Understanding Action Steps TEN ~ ~ FEEDBACK ~ ~ C Consequences of Action Brings New Awareness Y Cox, Taylor, & Beale, R.L. Developing Competency to Manage Diversity. San Francisco, Berrett-Koehler, 1997.
Diversity Competency Model Phase 1 MOTIVATION to CHANGE Awareness Recognition that diversity has effects on behavior and group outcomes. Phase 2 KNOWLEDGE of TYPE of CHANGE Understanding Acquiring a deeper cognitive grasp of how & why diversity affects performance Phase 3 CHANGING BEHAVIOR Action Steps Leading effort to alter behavior & performance in workgroup REFLECTING ON RESULTS FEEDBACK Consequences of action brings new awareness.
Diversity Skills for Managers O O n n e e iis s “ “ C C om om pe pe tte e nt nt ” ” a a tt M M a a na na gi gi n n g g D Diiv v e e rrs siitty y iiff ((s s ))he he iis s a a bl bl e e tto o.. Awareness Action • value diversity • institutionalize cultural • be conscious of knowledge the"dynamics" when cultures interact • adapt new actions reflecting an understanding Understanding of diversity between and • identify organizational within cultures. barriers that reduce individual equity and Feedback productivity. • demonstrate cultural self– • identify exclusionary assessment factors that inhibit group productivity & performance.
Applying the Diversity Competency Model Work, Tasks & Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Responsibilities Awareness Understanding Action Steps Feedback Communication C Performance O Evaluation & Feedback M Employee Development PE Conflict Resolution T Team Decision-Making EN Selection & Promotion C Delegation & Empowerment Y
Example 1 Perception & Stereotyping (Awareness – Pre-Competency Stage) • Stereotyping is a mental process in which the individual is viewed as a member of a group; the information we ascribe to the group is also ascribed to the individual. • In developing an awareness of differences, there is a danger of reinforcing stereotyping.
Difference between Stereotyping and Valuing Diversity (Understanding – Competency Stage) Stereotyping Valuing Diversity • Frequently based on false • Is based on cultural assumptions, anecdotal differences verified by evidence or impressions empirical research on actual without direct experience intergroup differences. with a group. • Assumes that group • Based on concept of “greater characteristics apply to probability” every member. • Ascribes negative valence • Ascribes neutral or positive to traits of the group. valence to traits of the group
5 Principles of Diversimilarity (Understanding – Competency Stage) 1. Creativity and Adversity in Diversity2. Conformity and Compatibility in Similarity 3. Diversity within Diversity4. Similarity across Diversity5. Managing Diversity by Managing Diversimilarity Ofori-Dankwa & Julian, p.85-6.
Example 1 Steps to Reduce Stereotyping (Action – Proficiency Stage) • Self-reflection; examine one’s assumptions• Formal education and training• Seek/check information from members of other identity group to distinguish real intergroup differences from folklore and myths • Request feedback from others about one’s use of stereotypes • Chal enge other people’s assumptions and statements that involve generalizations.
Modes of Acculturation (Action – Proficiency Stage) Assimilation Separation •Dominant Culture becomes the •Minority Culture unwilling/ standard of behavior for other unable to adapt to Dominant; cultures. •Seeks cultural & physical •Everyone conforms to autonomy. Dominant norms/values. De-culturation Pluralism •Dominant & Minority Culture •Integration: a two-way process. not highly valued by members •Both Cultures change to some •Neither is influential in framing degree and reflect the norms and minority behavior. values of the other. Cox, Taylor, & Beale, R.L. Developing Competency to Manage Diversity. San Francisco, Berrett-Koehler, 1997, pp. 204-207.