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POVER TY Poverty is deprivation, a lack of access to food, shelter and safe drinking water. While some define poverty primarily in economic terms, others consider social and political factors to be intrinsic. The ongoing debates around the causes, effects, and best ways to measure poverty directly influence the design and implementation of poverty reduction programs, and are therefore relevant to the fields of international development and public administration.
Philippines Level: The Arroyo administration’s official development agenda focuses specifical y on issues of poverty and unemployment. The key document here is the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP), 2001-2004, which stresses poverty reduction through equitable growth, rural development, and social sector investment. The four primary strategies are: • Macroeconomic stability and equitable growth, using sound fiscal and monetary policies to keep inflation low and avoid surges in unemployment; modernize all sectors through HR development and technology; • Comprehensive HR development, basic education, health, shelter, water, electricity; safety nets for most vulnerable sectors; encouraging poor to participate in governance; • Modernization of agricultural sector with social equity; agrarian reform, improving rural infrastructure, implementing land reform; • Effective governance through transparency, reducing graft and corruption, strengthening partnerships with civil society and the private sector.
Types of Poverty • Cyclical Poverty: refers to poverty that may be widespread throughout a population, but the occurrence itself is of limited duration. In non-industrial societies (past or present), this sort of inability to provide for one’s basic needs rest mainly upon temporary food shortages caused by natural phenomena or poor agricultural planning.
• Collective Poverty: In contrast of the cyclical poverty which is temporary, widespread or “col ective” poverty involves a relatively permanent insufficiency of means to secure basic needs. – Low life expectancy, high levels of infant mortality and poor health characterize life in this societies. – It is usual y related to economic underdevelopment. – Examples: Africa, Asia, South and Central America– Proposed remedy: • Expansion of the GNP through improved agriculture and industrialization or both • Population limitation. Improve population control programs
• Concentrated Collective Poverty: Parts of an industrialized country suffer from poverty because most of the developments took place in selected area particularly in urban places. – Their chief economic traits are unemployment and underemployment, unskil ed occupations and job instability. – The government must have programs that wil develop regions or rural areas in terms of agriculture and raising the level of skills of employable members of these areas.
• Case Poverty: It refers to the inability of an individual or family to secure basic needs even social surroundings of general prosperity. This inability is generally related to the lack of some basic attributes that would permit the individual to maintain himself. – The helpless aged, the blind, the physically handicapped, the chronically il , etc. – Solution: education, sheltered employment and economic maintenance
Causes of Poverty • Overpopulation• Global Distribution of Resources• High Standard of Living and Cost of Living • Inadequate Education and Employment • Environmental Degradation
Effects of Poverty • Malnutrition and Starvation• Infectious Diseases• Mental Il ness and Drug Dependence • Crime and Violence• Long-Term Effects
Proposed Solutions • Education and Job Training• Long-Term Economic Plans• Rehabilitation• Eliminating Job Discrimination• Better Tax Reform Programs• Work for the Unemployable
Problems due to movement of population • The composition of population in rural areas keeps on changing. • People who move out are often those who are capable of paying taxes- people who have relatively high levels of education and technical skil s and consequently greater earning power
Problems due to movement of population • While these people are moving out, the poor persons moving into the cities often without training, skills or formal education. • Unemployment rates are often staggering, squatter colonies blight the landscape, they need more services such as education, health care, housing and maintenance of peace and order. While the cost of public service rises, the tax base falls. These is one reason why some cities are dying.
Brain and Brawn drain • The exodus of Filipinos to other countries affects the nation’s economy • BRAIN DRAIN: the permanent loss of emigration of skil ed and semi-skilled citizens of a country • Early 1900’s: when Hawai needed manpower to work in its plantations • After WW II: Filipino contractors, technicians and laborers applied for work in the rehabilitation and reconstruction of naval and military bases of the US in Guam, Okinawa and Wake Island • Korean and Vietnam Wars: Filipino laborers became more indispensable in military and naval bases
Causes of Brain and Brawn drain • The Pul Factors: – Existence of Political and Historical connections between the country origin and the country of migration – Immigration policies of the receiving countries – Economic advantages being offered in foreign countries – Educational opportunities abroad– The nature of lifestyle in the foreign country
Causes of Brain and Brawn drain • The Push Factors: – Too many graduates compared to the needed manpower – Low salaries– Lack of incentives for professional growth and advancement – Social and emotional factors– Schools have not succeeded in instilling a sense of nationhood among Filipino students
Assignment ng Dum Dum Boys • Review Taxation and Poverty for the Long Test on Tuesday, Feb 24 • For your Final Project (QT?) March 19 • Work on your topic for your group’s documentary film • Prepare al materials needed (letter, programs, etc)• March 16 wil be the deadline of al requirements (documentary (if possible) theme of the conference, script and program)