Social Bond TheorySelf-Control Theory Travis HirschiMichael Gottfredson
Social Bond TheoryTravis Hirschi Social Process Theories Social Control Theories Causes of Delinquency (1969) Social Bond Theory Attachment Commitment Involvement Belief
Social Bond TheoryTravis Hirschi Attachment refers to a person’s sensitivity to and interest in others.
Social Bond TheoryTravis Hirschi Commitment involves the time, energy, and effort expended in conventional lines of action, such as getting an education and saving money for the future.
Social Bond TheoryTravis Hirschi Heavy involvement in conventional activities leaves little time for il egal behavior.
Social Bond TheoryTravis Hirschi People who live in the same social settings often share common moral beliefs; they may adhere to such values as sharing, sensitivity to rights of others, and admiration for the legal code.
Testing Social Bond Theory Hirschi’s Supporting Research Youths who were strongly attached to their parents were less likely to commit criminal acts. Commitment to conventional values, such as striving to get a good education and refusing to drink alcohol and “cruise around,” was indicative of conventional behavior. Youths involved in conventional activity, such as homework, were less likely to engage in criminal behavior. Youths involved in unconventional behavior, such as smoking and drinking, were more delinquency prone. Youths who maintained weak and distant relationships with people tended toward delinquency. Those who shunned unconventional acts were attached to their peers. Delinquents and nondelinquents shared similar beliefs about society.
Testing Social Bond Theory Opposing Views Friendship Not al elements of the bond are equal Deviant peers and parents Restricted in scope Changing bonds Crime and social bonds
Self-Control Theory Travis Hirschi & Michael Gottfredson Latent Trait Theories General Theory of Crime (GTC) A General Theory of Crime (1990) Self-Control Theory
Self-Control Theory Travis Hirschi & Michael Gottfredson Differences of Social Bond Theory & Self-control Theory A General Theory of Crime (1990) Integration of: Biosocial Psychological Routine activities Rational Choice Theories
Self-Control Theory Travis Hirschi & Michael Gottfredson In GTC Gottfredson and Hirschi consider the criminal offender and the criminal act as separate concepts
Self-Control Theory Travis Hirschi & Michael Gottfredson Criticisms Tautological Different classes of criminals Ecological / Individual differences Racial and gender differences Moral beliefs Peer influence People change Modest relationship Cross-cultural differences Misreads Human nature